One of the more interesting things to capture my attention in the Executive Summary DP 2034 has been the gash into SGNP from the Goregaon side. This patch has been of interest to me since 2002 when I first saw the blasting. Even as we discuss Save Aarey currently it is important to discuss how this white patch intrudes into SGNP and should not this area be the buffer?
The gash I speak about is the the neat square white patch in the images below which I have captured from the Executive Summary document. The white patch intrudes ugly and very symmetrically into in the green patch of Sanjay Gandhi National Park. Compare with Google Earth images below.
The hills side under discussion is viewed in pics below
2003 is when I first raised an alarm about the blasting happening on the hills sides besides Film City Road and adjacent to the Nagari Nivaraa colony. I raised the matter in conversations on Mumbai Naturalists yahoo group hoping to create some traction and pressure group on the same. Post 2003 my involvement with SGNP and its buffer reduced drastically because I got more involved with urban issues besides my involvement with mangroves.
The conversations from December 2003 are there in the images below.
Part 1 – 6 are the emails from Debi Goenka recording conversations with noted biologist and conservationist George Schaller and commentary on an article by Vijay Singh, then in Indian Express.
Part 7-8 is reply by Dr. Satheesan.
Part 9 – 10 is my comments on the issue highlighting the state of affairs of the Goregaon hills and Part 11 is a comment by Dr. Satheesan to my email.
As was not uncommon there was no reply from Debi. I had since April 2002 been deeply critical of his and BEAGs conduct and would remark then that it was easier to get information from the government (in pre-RTI era) but impossible to get information from BEAG.
The pics below show the latest Google Earth images and also pics from 2000 onwards. The amount of damage by blasting and subsequent new constructions is evident.
We still do not have any idea about what is the existing buffer of SGNP and whether we need to take any steps for improving the edges. No discussion either.
17th November 2013
Informing and clarifying on the mangroves around Lokhandwala Complex and the Lokhandwala mangroves.
The report carried in TOI on 15th November is completely wrong in representing the facts. In this note I am pointing out what is so wrong and putting straight some milestones and the timeline of events over the past fifteen years.
Public memory is short and over such long period even journalists do not have recourse to the facts and anecdotes but that cannot be an excuse for misinformation to float around
This clarification is not about some desire for me to have excessive adulation or a quote. All the content in that expanded caption is completely wrong. Get a quote by all means but don’t give misinformation. Whether Sumesh gave the wrong information or ToI made a mess has to be clarified by them. It will be quite shocking of ToI on their own got all this so wrong.
When I look at the issue after two days I understand what has happened. Fundamentally Sumesh is commenting on a far larger issue from the perspectives of his experience dealing with MCZMA over the plot behind his building. This is where a builder is carrying out dumping and hence “Builders eyeing construction projects create bunds around mangroves to keep water out. “This causes mangroves to dry up and eventually destroys them,”
Overall the Lokhandwala mangroves covering around 300-400 acres are at in the safest phase of time they have been since 1991. And this has angered me many a time in the past many years about civic minded citizens. Just to solve a problem, which particularly effects their backyard, they will resort to sweeping general doomsday remarks to somehow be able to make an impact on their backyard.
This plot behind Karan is where MCZMA is not responding after repeated representations (two years not ten as stated) and hence “Lekhi and others wrote to the Maharashtra Coastal Zone Management Authority about 10 years ago, but all pleas to save the creek and mangroves fell on deaf ears.” Did the paper write this on their own? Sumesh did not say this? More comment on this below.
The whole of the large byline on Versova creek is very little on the core of the issue which is about pollution in the creeks and the bad water quality. This is clearly a fault of the editorial desk at ToI as well. Sensationalism can be a universal fault, with citizens as well as media.
Versova Creek does not have 1800 acres of mangroves. The issue really is not about Versova creek anyways, it is about the Malad Creek. Versova creek is a very small section, whose pollution is a result of the huge discharge of untreated domestic sewage and chemical effluents in the Malad creek. This effluent makes its way from Andheri, Jogeshwari, Goregaon and Malad, including the east of these suburbs. Versova itself does not generate so much pollution to make the Versova creek as polluted as it has become.
And why is there so much pollution in the creeks, Because engineering brains in the corrupt contractor-officials-politician mafia is siphoning of money which can be used to provide effective solutions to treat sewage and effluent. They are peddling useless solutions because the main interest is to give contracts and not solutions.
I am more than happy to see ne people enter the fray, but clearly if new people enter the same area of work where you have given enormous contribution in the past you see the quote very closely for factual errors if any. In this case the facts are completely wrong and an activity which was completely overseen by me (10 years ago) is ascribed to somebody else.
It can be the case that the journalist in question does not know the geography, the details of area covered etc. and a timeline of past developments and hence it becomes the responsibility of the person speaking to provide this information in a succinct manner. In this case either the article was made by the journalist and some editors on their own sitting in the office without being in touch with Sumesh and others in the area or else all the information was provided by Sumesh himself, since he is the one quoted in the article.
The Lokhandwala mangroves and my work in saving them will always be special in my life for a lot of reasons – happy and very sad. I saved Lokhandwala Lake from certain destruction in 1999. I named it Lokhandwala Lake, spoke about its natural beauty at forums and in media and gave it a position of eminence when there was absolutely no interest in it from the local residents. I received support from Mr. P K Patel, Mr. S P Gupta and Mr. Parikshat Sahni in doing so
Subsequently I saved large chunks of the mangroves in the same area in 2001.
During 2001-2002 I worked with Pravin Choudhary in completely stopping the dumping on the Millat Nagar mangroves, 500 acres of which were completely destroyed by when, but at least the plans were foiled.
I will give a point by point rebuttal to what was stated in the report, copied below for reference
About 1,800 acres of mangroves and some 20,000 birds are still found here, despite heavy pollutants and dumping on the periphery of the creek. Industrial and human waste is discharged into the creek and its waters are murky. No fishing is done because of heavy concentration of chemicals and effluents. Builders eyeing construction projects create bunds around mangroves to keep water out. “This causes mangroves to dry up and eventually destroys them,” said Sumesh Lekhi of the Oshiwara Lokhandwala Citizens Association. Lekhi and others wrote to the Maharashtra Coastal Zone Management Authority about 10 years ago, but all pleas to save the creek and mangroves fell on deaf ears.
The part in inverted quotes and bold is taken from the article verbatim and below that is my comment and explanation.
- “About 1,800 acres of mangroves …..”
The existing mangroves around Lokhandwala Complex do not cover more than 500 acres and will be between 300-400 acres more accurately. The Millat Nagar mangroves which got destroyed completely were around 500 acres. So let us get the numbers right in the first place. 1800 acres might be the total mangroves in Malad creek.
- 2. “Builders eying construction projects create bunds around mangroves to keep water out…”
Let us not speak in generalities. Large scale destruction of mangroves around Lokhandwala Complex is history now due to the very strong efforts put in primarily by me between 2001 (when I was able to solo stop the first big dumping) to 2005.
Madhav Limaye played active role coordinating with the local police and BMC subsequently. Mr. Patel was an absolute strong moral support besides looking into administrative matters. Mr. Parikshat Sahni was another strong supporter but his film schedules kept him busy and away from operational involvement. Mr. Rajesh Sharma is the one other person I will strongly credit for having been very supportive behind the scenes.
Mr. Patel and Mr. Sahni have known me since my earliest activism days when as a 24 year old I stopped the dumping of garbage in Lokhandwala Lake and became a headache for those within BMC who were facilitating the garbage dumping.
It can be generally fashionable in the few citizens who will be civic minded and also some activists to talk dooms day language, use alarmist language and create sensation. I have never relied on the same. I absolutely love to have all my facts straight, learn and re-learn if I make mistake on those. And I do not like to resort to alarmism to resolve an issue which is more of a personal interest; not piggy back ride one issue on another.
In this case the issue of the plot of land behind Karan building is piggy back riding on the overall Lokhandwala Mangroves. There are no mangroves behind Karan building. The resident builder wants to make a building there (completely illegal) and to fight, which OLCA has made the situation as if all of the 300 acres of mangroves in Mumbai are in danger!
Are builders making any bunds now? None. The last big organised dumping in the area happened in the end of 2009 in the site opposite Millat Nagar. I again intervened over there bringing the dumping to a complete stop. OLCA was nowhere then. The 20,000 birds that Sumesh now speaks about would not have found a habitat, because the 2009 dumping was to plug the breach in Malad creek which was allowing waters to flow into the plot. The details of that dumping (and videos) are here.
I with the help from a friend filmed the dumping operations sitting up in early winter mornings. And ended up facing an uproar at home when they realised later from news what I had been upto.
- 3. “This causes mangroves to dry up and eventually destroys them,” said Sumesh Lekhi
Yes you would have to make these kind of statements had you been around 1999-2003 when this was the norm rather than the exception. No mangroves are drying up in Lokhandwala area now. All that had dried up have been revived.
The biggest threat to the mangroves may be the two acre transit dumping ground near the Versova Sewage Lagoon which does not even find a mention.
Some dumping happens in the creek near the bridge but it is not fresh dumping, this is dumping on top of what was already dumped more than ten years ago.
Almost all of OLCA efforts in the past two years has been to stop a building from coming up behind Karan building where Sumesh resides.
4. “Lekhi and others wrote to the Maharashtra Coastal Zone Management Authority about 10 years ago,”
Excuse me? OLCA has been formed less than two years ago, I never saw Sumesh around even in 2011, which was last when I was active in the complex mobilising back road residents for collective action to stop the transit dumping ground. (more on that below)
MCZMA gave its first verdict in response to my correspondence in February 2002. It was an outright success because it ordered Oshiwara Land Development Trust to restore the mangroves destroyed by them. Since then the mangroves have grown back healthy. Large breaches were made by the builders into the L shaped bund they had made and were personally supervised by me and Madhu Swant then.
What Sumesh is referring to the lack of response by MCZMA to the plot behind his building; again distorting the picture by riding that plot on the back of Lokhandwala mangroves.
In 2011 I covered almost all buildings along the backroad then, held extensive meetings in Meghdoot 1 where Rajesh Mishra is the only one who seems to be affected by the issue. I was also trying to make the residents agree upon a funding plan for a full time project officer for Mangrove Society of India – Mumbai Chapter – my third failed attempt in the past decade.
And this is what annoys me and makes me feel obnoxious about the nonsense people of Lokhandwala Complex of whom I feel OLCA is very representative of
5. “but all pleas to save the creek and mangroves fell on deaf ears.
Lokhandwala mangroves are actually a success story of conservation. All pleas to save the creek and the mangroves have been most effectively responded by the government. The very first verdict by the MCZMA was in February 2002, in response to my representations in the preceding six months.
And that is why I hate these sweeping alarmist statements, creeks are dying, mangroves are on the verge of disappearing, the government is tone deaf and the likes. Almost all authorities I worked with on the Lokhandwala mangroves responded positively and there was outcome on the ground.
Similar is the case for Versova mangroves, which are again a case study for success. While the situation on the ground has chained in past decade, the discourse on mangroves remains alarmist.
Where there is real danger we have nobody responding. During 2003-2009, even the few members who were active started becoming inactive due to professional and family reasons and I was carrying the mantle of MSI all alone, receiving calls from affected areas, visiting, calling authorities, organising World Wetlands Day functions and the like.
I have hardly been active with the issues of saving mangroves or anywhere in the city for that matter since around 2010 for a number of personal reasons. But it is not that I have not lent my weight where required to the issue. Three years is not a long enough time for such important fact and milestones to be so comprehensively forgotten.
The Ministry of Environment and Forests has come up with draft Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2013. The rules will overrule the existing rules which were framed in 2000 here. The Ministry has given a period of 60 days (from 29.08.2013) for public to respond with their views and suggestions.
It is important that everybody concerned with the issue of a clean city to engage with this process. The issue is not just one of a clean city but the philosophy towards waste management and the processes that will be followed. A number of activists have been carrying out efforts over the years without broad based public involvement. Please do consider organising programs around this issue where some of the members involved with the issue for long would love to come and speak.
The rules seem to have been put together in a hurry with incorporating the learnings from a number of developments since the 2000 Rules.
The proposed rules have a number of flaws, which I am highlighting below.
- The Ministry must share what necessitated the need for a new set of rules. Whether a note on the same is prepared and should share the same.
- The rules lack commentary on the serious constraints involved with developing new landfill sites. Competing demands for land are now stronger than they were when the rules were last formed in 2000. Land is needed to housing, infrastructure, farming and recreation and hence needs to be low in the priority of solid waste management.
- The rules do not adequately stress on the need for municipal corporations to go beyond the call of duty in sensitizing the citizens about not mixing wet and dry waste at source and hence minimising the need for centralised collection and transport of waste and landfill requirements.
- If in MSW 2000 this need was felt and appreciated adequately the developments since then have only increased the importance of reducing as much waste at source as possible. MSW 2013 Rules need to in fact start getting stringent about not accepting any mixed waste at source and levying fines for the same.
- The Rules should adequately acknowledge the services provided by rag pickers, the significant self-employment generated as a result and the need for municipal corporations to formally recognize the contribution by them.
- The Ministry should be abundantly aware that a lot of the requirements expected in the MSW 2000 Rules have been violated with gross impunity.
- The Rules should comment that due to the following important considerations there will be a strong focus on the minimisation of transport of waste over long distance. The transport of waste over long distance leads to
- Use of fossil fuels which leads to release of GHG emissions which leads to long term environmental damage. India has a National Acton Plan on Climate Change and is a participant in global talks on mitigating climate change. The municipal waste management rules need to clearly be compliant with these efforts in letter and spirit.
- Air pollution from emissions which lead to immediate health impacts to the residents of the city.
- Loss of foreign exchange and hence economically harms the country. This is important in years like 2013, when we are facing a crisis.
- Expenditure on expensive machinery and
- Overall puts a strain on the municipal budget of the respective city.
- MSW 2013 Rules need to give very explicit guidance/instructions to the municipal corporations for engaging substantially in activities towards creating awareness about segregation of garbage and all other measures to treat biodegradable waste at source through various means. This creating of awareness will be through (and not limited to) advertisements in papers, television, schools, colleges, cinema halls, funding civil society organisations for road shows and all other means.
- MSW Rules 2013 should stress on very high standards of financial reporting about the complete costs involved in waste management.
- MSW Rules 2013 should stress on detailed disclosure on all the kinds of waste being generated in the city.
- MSW Rules 2013 do not adequately address the issue of electronic waste. Electronic waste generation is now huge in India and significant amount like batteries etc. are being disposed in the normal stream of waste disposal. The municipal corporations have to cover the whole gamut of awareness creation, strict segregation at source and final disposal in detail and with seriousness.
- MSW Rules 2013 need to be explicit and stringent on the need to strictly control the distribution of plastic carry bags in various kinds of shopping, a very large proportion of which end up in the garbage stream and are posing very serious environmental challenges. In Mumbai, all waterways like nullahs, creeks and the sea are choked with such plastic bags. During monsoons the sea throws all the plastic and other refuse out and makes a complete mess of the beaches.
The Waste to Energy part has been added new and one wonders whether that is the sole purpose of the new set of rules.
- Who were the planners in CIDCO or Urban Development Department who decided on the current width and configuration of the Regency Road? Names of the officials, the Secretary and the Minster then.
- Which year was the plan made for Koparkhairane and which year did the execution start?
- What existed before the city in the current format?
The recent rape case in Delhi has created a national outrage. As much as I thought I will stick to the enormous work on my table and not ‘distract’, I find myself putting down a few quick thoughts. Almost everybody is discussing it and I saw a teary eyed Jaya Bachhan, giving her two bits about where the solution lay. She could stop associating with a lousy political party for starts. There are loud demands for a death sentence for rapists, chemical castration, no bail and faster prosecution.
All of this is good but it is important to remind some points to a lot of those who are agitated about the rape and are active on social media and other forums. A lot of these people are other wise silent and can be seen on the same social social media engaging in the most banal of conversations and never active on any matters regarding public policy governing any of our important social issues. It is important that these people – a number of them teenagers and youth – realise the larger social context, which could be shaping why people like the accused Ram Singh and his accomplices engage in the kind of brutality they did.
The rapes cannot be looked at in isolation of other pertinent social issues and indeed do not happen in isolation of these issues.
When the poor get thrown out of the city and dumped into areas outside the city, which have poor connectivity to areas where people have their livelihoods, in homes and neighbourhoods which are poorly planned and cramped, how many get alarmed? I am not saying it is only the poor which engage in rapes and socially undesirable behaviour, but the tendency to be brazen and have a nothing to loose attitude can certainly be developed in this section when they find the rest of the society and especially the elite and the educated not concerned about policies which impact their very existence. Delhi has followed the motto of – Remove the poor not poverty – to the hilt in the past decade.
When did the social elite who are now discussing this rape, question the kind of horrible conditions in which a large majority of the lower socio-economic bracket live in? When did the same elite discuss humane and affordable housing for those who do not earn as much? Read the conditions of Ravidas Camp and that should cause outrage. Why in 6 decades of Independence are we not able to provide decent housing, which provides spaces and privacy to our people? While the rich and investors invest in multiple penthouses even as they live in only one. The poor cramped conditions, the bad ventilation and absence of sewage facilities in the dwelling units for a large segment of the population does not outrage a lot of these people who have the best of material comforts.
How many in Mumbai have been vocal on the conditions in slums like Bandra(E) and Kherwadi, Dharavi, Malwani and the other slum areas in Malad. How many challenge the brazenness with which politicians have made poor people and affordable housing for them into such a convenient and fail proof mechanism for staying in political power?
A lot of these petty and major criminals find convenient shelter in these slums and find patronage by politicians and business to take care of inconvenient matters.
It was well established in the 90’s that there are is strong correlation between air pollution and criminal tendencies and activities. When did people come out in support of better air quality legislation?
Everybody hate’s hawkers on busy arterial roads, around schools and colleges, railway stations, bus stops and almost everywhere else. Those who speak for them continuously are pointing out about how they help in keeping streets safe and how it would be counter productive to keep evicting them as some would definitely take to crime to make two ends meet. I hardly find any new person getting involved in the discussion in the past decade beyond the usual.
Should not the pretty and very fashionable girls (and guys) – and very dumb at times as well – in St. Xaviers and Mithibai and other elite colleges in Mumbai be finding time for such discussions and activities rather than the usual very happening get togethers, parties, Calvin Klein perfumes, LV bags and exotic holidays and the like? What about bullshit shows like MTV Roadies on TV? When did we last show outrage on the way impoliteness and being rude and demeaning to women is celebrated and encouraged on these shows?
When did we discuss better counselling facilities for those who are going through trauma, stress or disturbances in mental condition?
A lot of criminals and rapists have become fearless because the political system itself is made up of criminals. When did members of our middle class pull up their local councillors?
The time to get angry and thinking is when a female President of the country pardons sentences of heinous criminals involved in murder and rape. The issue to get interested in – and which media should – investigate is what lives these people lead after their pardon?
When NGOs and civic activists keep public talks and events how many of these mango people ever turn up?
It has been my constant grouse that a lot of the educated elite have abundant time and money for IPL and malls and movies at multiplex and many other banal activities which they like to justify as well earned and relevant but have absolutely no time be involved with the transport policy, housing policy, solid waste management policy, budget of the municipal corporation, state of the health and education system, oversight on political representatives and a host of other big and small issues.
When did you last see those in candle light marches and street marches after the recent rape coming out and question their elected representatives on various policy matters or make a donation to an NGO which is doing it? Almost never.
Let us stop living in a false sense of superiority over our civilisations past glory. Incidents like the recent rape should be a call for action for those who are only worshipping Devi’s and organise Durga Pooja and Mata ki Chowki and visit Vaishneodevi and a thousand other rituals which have lost all meaning in the light of the poor respect – almost institutionalised – we have for women in the country. Somebody just recently donated 3kg gold at Tirupati and was till 3 months back informing the world on social media about how he was partying and enjoying the company of bikini clad women while his employees were not paid salaries and were finding it difficult to make two ends meet. Time to junk these practices and start getting involved with governance and policy. Stop doing religious rituals and start participating with civic activists.
The sooner social, civic and environmental issues stop becoming something with which only activists and advocacy groups are involved and become an area where the mainstream regularly participates the sooner we will have a solution to the kind of rapes which keep happening in Dehi.
A friend coming from abroad after long got into discussing how embarrassed he was with the CWG shame. I had to cut him in between showing my absolute disinterest in discussing the matter and wasting my blood.
I would have thought that the CWG shame and embarrassment would have brought sections of civil society, youth, ‘well wishers’ etc. of the country on to the streets – there would have been riots and an indication of that elusive change. There would have been some public display of the disgust.
But Incredible India and its wonderful people never fail to surprise. I am also becoming an observer now. Not worth it to expend efforts for such a comfortable lot of people. I would have done something in more idealistic and foolish times.
This note is in context of understanding how black holes of the failure of human intelligence and spirit like Haiti exist and then also get rocked by one natural disaster after the other.
I am copying below one small chapter from a book which I have found very thought provoking and enlightening and to which I was introduced by Mr. Raj, an alternate health practitioner who primarily works at correcting imbalances in spiritual energy. A close family friend had introduced him to us to work on my fathers terminal cancer in 2007.
He was aware of my work in environmental issues and gifted me his copy of “The Last hours of Ancient Sunlight” by Thom Hartmann.
This chapter copied below relates to Columbus’ oppression and havoc on the current islands of Haiti as he landed there first. Even as I was following the earthquake and then read this article http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/22/opinion/22danner.html?pagewanted=1
I was reminded of my having read the chapter below from “Last Hours…” and how there could be a strong possible connection between what happened there 500 years ago and the sustained misery that the country finds itself in. Some comments are after the passage below. The thoughts are in the context of all places where we carry out cultural and environmental genocide even today.
This chapter will always be soul stirring and special to me because I read it first as I was on my first trip to the United States on June 1st 2007. Till then I had been aware of the Spanish savagery in the Americas but had never read a graphic detailed note on the savagery of the discoverer himself. Two decades of awe, fascination and a general inspiration about the spirit of discovery collapsed within an hour and ironically just as I was about to enter the country itself.
Glimpsing a Possible Future in Haiti and Other Hot Spots
The future is made of the same stuff as the present. – Simone Weil (1909-1943)
Christopher Columbus not only opened the door to a New World, but also set an example for us all. – George Bush, 1989 speech
If you fly over the country of Haiti on the island of Hispaniola, the island on which Columbus landed, it looks like somebody took a blowtorch and burned away anything green. Even the ocean around the port capital of Port au Prince is choked for miles with the brown of human sewage and eroded topsoil. From the air, it looks like a lava flow spilling out into the sea.
The history of this small island is, in many ways, a microcosm for whats happening in the whole world. (emphasis is mine)
When Columbus first landed on Hispaniola in 1492, virtually the entire island was covered by lush forest. The Taino “Indians” who lived there had an apparently idyllic life prior to Columbus, from the reports left to us by literate members of the Columbus’ crew such as Miguel Cuneo.
When Columbus and his crew arrived on their second visit to Hispaniola, however, they took captive about two thousand local villagers who had come to greet them. Cuneo wrote: “When our ships…were to leave for Spain, we gathered…one thousand six hundred male and female persons of those Indians, and of these we embarked in our ships on February 17, 1495 …For those who remained, we let it be known [to the Spaniards who manned the islands fort] in the vicinity that anyone who wanted to take some of them could do so, to the amount desired, which was done.”
Cuneo further notes that he himself took a beautiful teenage Carib girl as his personal slave, a gift from Columbus himself, but that when he attempted to have sex with her, she “resisted with all her strength.” So, in his words, he “thrashed her mercilessly and raped her.”
While Columbus once referred to the Taino Indians as cannibals, there was then and today still is no evidence of this: it was apparently a story made up by Columbus-which is to this day still taught in some US Schools – to help justify his slaughter and enslavement of these people. He wrote to the Spanish monarchs in 1493: “It is possible, with the name of the Holy Trinity, to sell all the slaves which it is possible to sell…Here there are so many of these slaves, and also brazilwood, that although they are living things they are as good as gold…”
Columbus and his men also used the Taino as sex slaves: it was a common reward for Columbus’ men for him to present them with local women to rape. As he began exporting Taino as slaves to other parts of the world, the sex-slave trade became an important part of the business, as Columbus wrote to a friend in 1500: ” A hundred castelanoes [a Spanish coin] are as easily obtained for a woman as for a farm, and it is very general that there are plenty of dealers who go about looking for girls, those from nine to ten [years old] are now in demand.”*
* Letter of Columbus quoted in Eric Williams’ Documents of West Indian History (Port – of – Spain, Trinidad: PNM 1963), and Peter Martyr, De Orbe Novo (1516)
However the Taino turned out not to be particularly good workers in the plantations that the Spaniards and later the French established on Hispaniola: they resented their lands and children being taken, and attempted to fight back against the invaders. Since the Taino were obviously standing in the way of Spain’s progress, Columbus sought to impose discipline on them. For even a minor offense and Indian’s nose or ear was cut off, so he could go back to his village to impress the people with the brutality the Spanish were capable of. Columbus attacked them with dogs, skewered them on poles from anus to mouth, and shot them. Eventually, life for the Taino became so unbearable that. as Pedro de Cordoba wrote to King Ferdinand in a 1517 letter, ” As a result of the sufferings and hard labor they endured, the Indians chose and have chosen suicide. Occasionally a hundred have committed mass suicide. The women, exhausted by labor, have shunned conception and childbirth… Many, when pregnant, have taken something to abort and have aborted. Others after delivery have killed their children with their own hands, so as to not leave them in such oppressive slavery.”
Eventually, Columbus, and later his brother Bartholomew Columbus who left in charge of the island, simply resorted to wiping out the Taino altogether. Prior to Columbus’ arrival, most scholars place the population of Haiti/Hispaniola at around 3 million people. By 1496, it was down to 1,100,000, according to a census done by Bartholomew Columbus. By 1516, the indigenous population was 12,000, and, according to Las Casas (who was there) by 1542 fewer than 200 natives were alive. By 1555, every single one was dead. (today not a single Taino is alive: their culture, people, and genes have vanished from the planet.)
As the transported population of slaves from Africa grew in Haiti, people began cutting the forests to create farmland and to use the trees as firewood for cooking and boiling water. As a result, today trees cover less than one percent of Haiti. The denuded land, exposed to rainfall and runoff sped up by the slope of the country’s hills, has been so thoroughly eroded that it has mixed with sewage and carried the stain a full four miles out to sea from Port Au Prince. Millions of people are crowded into the cities, where they provide a ready pool of ultra-cheap labor for multinational corporations, as well as cheap domestic help and inexpensive child and adult prostitutes for the European and American managers of those corporate interests and the occasional tourist.
The legacy of Columbus is that life in Haiti is more than poor: it is desperate. As much as 16 hours a day are spent by the average country-dweller in search of food or firewood, and an equal amount of time is spent by city dwellers in search of money or edible garbage. Diseases ranging from cholera or AIDS run rampant through the overcrowded population.
While Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere, it is not unique. The Dominican Republic, which shares the island, is moving in the same direction, as is much of the rest of Central and South America.”
Some thoughts –
1) The Spanish must be beyond competition the most savage and ruthless set of people to inhabit the planet. And it is interesting how the images of savagery that occupy the popular thought are ones either of Africans in dark rainforests or maybe Oriental. In the South and Central American context also I have always been sickened with the kind of brutality with which the Spanish took control of the land and decimated people and cultures which existed there since millenia. And in popular discourse and in documentary programs the general flavour given for all the killing and pillage is one of adventure and heroism.
2) It is quite possible that in going the Taino must have left a curse that whosoever inhabits the land after them would never ever be happy and that is pretty evident in the history of that land. It is incredibly saddening to read the line which describes the people as living idyllic self-sustained lifestyles on a lush land who came to greet Columbus as a show of good will and curiosity towards visitors and then got wiped out in one century (3 million of them gone).
My wonder is that will the curse come to the Spanish at some time? It is ironical that the Africans who themselves underwent significant misery and still do at the hands of the White and Spanish in particular are the ones who bear the brunt now.
3) Will places like Orissa face the same fate one day? In the next two decades to fill the insatiable demand of educated and upwardly mobile people for metals and minerals almost all the forests and tribal people there will be destroyed – leading to a Haiti kind of imagery when flying from above. Forests which are held sacred by tribal communities as the abode of gods will be scooped out awith gaint excavators and the people themselves sent to tin and cement barracks – will the deeply disturbed spirits of the gods and the people end up leading to sustained misery in Orissa?
It is quite plausible that the Lok Sabha 2009 elections may have been partly or largely funded through the subsequent food grain price rise that we have seen. The LS 2009 elections were by far the costliest elections with the stakes being really high and the Congress having spared no efforts in winning.
Contesting and winning elections is not an easy job. You need thousands of vehicles, manpower, food for the workers, banners and other promotional material, full time teams of strategists and so much more. The LS 2009 elections cost Rs. 10,000 crores. How do parties get this kind of money to spend? What was the spend per party and what different accounts? Do we have a detailed breakup of the accounts? Who are the official big donors? Even if we get to know the big donors there is a gigantic list of business interests who spend on the parties in cash and how does one account for that?
Even with the donors are people doing it for love of the political party? What is the pound of flesh being extracted if any? Could there be a policy of mutual favours and payments in kind?
One mutual favour policy could have been to receive funds for all the expenses during Mar-April 2009 and then repay with interest during May -Dec2009 by allowing for a sustained rice in prices of food grains. The mechanics of the same could have been an arrangement with the big traders of food grains about funding the various costs of contesting LS 2009 in response to which the political parties would take suitable measures to ensure that the food grain prices hover significantly high for some time once the government is formed. This is a perfect system and an arrangement with which business interests are most familiar and comfortable with. This is also like having a gigantic election IPO in which the millions of stakeholders make payments for keeping the organisation – democracy in this case – running.
While I will be reading further and forming my opinion something intuitively tells me that my hypothesis is correct.
The big traders would be the kind who deal in bulk wheat, rice, sugar etc. – the kinds who deal in million tonnes. There is no point raising money from small traders, the logistics of collection become very high and anyways with the big traders ultimately you are dealing with a few gate keepers through whom ultimately the food grains have to ultimately flow. And maybe the small traders will help at the local levels but for the big ticket spending for centralised campaigns and organized money distribution to purchase media and votes it is the big traders who come into play.
Imagine a cartel of 100 (or 1000) traders decides to extend 500 crores to a political party or parties in cash. The maths being that if you can offload 10 million tonnes of a combination of food per month at even Rs. 200 more per tonne for five months then you have recovered Rs. 1000 crores. Not very difficult? Entirely doable. A lot of reasons can be used to justify the rise, media can be managed to confuse people by flooding with a host of different reasons leaving people disinterested in applying their mind. Droughts, easy credit, difficult credit, dysfunctional distributions systems and what not. The poor will bring down their consumption, the rich will stay at the same level, but in the end the same amount would be consumed fetching a higher return.
This may seem a conspiracy theory but in the kind of democracy India is with very poor public debate on important matters and an enormous capacity in the common man to experience considerable hardships over decades without questioning the lack of simple interventions which can solve the problems, makes India a fertile ground for all kind of manipulators. The common man are the planktons, which help millions of a particular species of manipulators to breed on whom in turn a few thousand master shark-hunter-politico-business-interest kinds thrive.
A healthy democracy would have a debate on such issues for days to end. There would be multiple opinions, a huge amount of data and analysts.
This need not have been a sole job of Sharad Pawar but instead be cutting across party lines for the amount of benefits that such an exercise would yield. Even then one has to give it to him that a lone Sharad Pawar possesses the brilliance and capability to swing this kind of an activity single-handedly. A large number of politicians themselves are involved in the food grains trade.
The poor progress we have made as a society to discuss the funding of elections and party expenses is quite embarrassingly characteristic of the great democracy some of us would like to believe we are.
The need of the hour is to collect a number of data sets which will help understand whether this hypothesis is correct or incorrect. The media was mostly sold out but there need to be some independent academics and researchers of repute who need to put together the following:
1) What has been the quantum of extra money spent by the public as a result of the price rise. Thus supposing Mumbai consumes a 1000 kilograms of sugar per month at the rate of Rs. 25 / kg and the rate goes up to Rs. 40 / kg the differential outflow is Rs. 15,000 more than what would have been Rs. 25,000/-. This is just an example, we need to have all the figures on an all India basis and then be able to find the amount of money that has additionally flown out of the pocket of citizens.
2) Who are the key big entities, companies and individuals who trade in food grains in large quantities? What are their linkages with key politicians? What kind of relationships in terms of positions in companies, consultative contracts etc. are held between such entities and politicians?
3) A detailed breakup of all the election expenses leading to the 10,000 crore figure.
Maybe we have been funding elections like this all along. Maybe this is the Indian-Way. In which case there needs to be an analysis of such phenomenon across elections. Any which way I would like to know whether I am paying for the bills of keeping our great democracy going? There are no free lunches right?